Variabilidad genética neutral y presencia de mecanismos de resistencia en Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), provenientes de diferentes hospedantes en Chile central

José Antonio Rubiano-Rodríguez
Eduardo Fuentes-Contreras
Claudio Ramirez

Myzus persicae es considerado la tercera plaga de importancia económica de varios cultivos en Chile. Su variabilidad genética es influenciada por la disponibilidad del hospedante primario. Este insecto ha adquirido resistencia a la mayoría de los insecticidas utilizados para su control. El presente trabajo
tuvo como objetivo evaluar la diversidad genética y la presencia de mecanismos de resistencia de M. persicae en cultivos como duraznero y pimentón. El estudio se realizó en doce localidades: seis en la región de O'Higgins y seis en la región del Maule en Chile central. Para evaluar la diversidad genética neutral, se utilizaron siete marcadores microsatélites, y la identificación de mecanismos se realizó mediante ensayos de discriminación alélica. La mayor diversidad
genética se presentó en poblaciones del duraznero > 0,80 en promedio. En pimentón y arvenses, esta diversidad fue 0,36 en promedio. La frecuencia de individuos con mecanismos de resistencia fue baja y en forma predominantemente heterocigota en los hospedantes evaluados, lo que sugiere que la forma de reproducción sexual del áfido influye en los niveles de resistencia a insecticida. La presencia de mecanismos de resistencia en M. persicae depende
del hospedante, región geográfica y momento de muestreo en el que son evaluados. Existe suficiente evidencia de que las poblaciones de M. persicae están compuestas por muy pocos grupos genéticos, presentando diferentes dinámicas de resistencia a insecticidas en la misma temporada agrícola.

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Brassicaceae, insecticidas, plagas de plantas, Prunus persica, resistencia

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