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Diversidad genética de Rhizoctonia solani GA-3PT, causa etiológica del chancro del tallo y la sarna de la papa en Colombia

Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar
Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje (SENA)
Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (AGROSAVIA)
Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (AGROSAVIA)
Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA)
ADN ribosomal amplificación aleatoria de microsatélites (RAMs) Solanum phureja Solanum tuberosum Thanatephorus cucumeris

Resumen

El chancro del tallo y la sarna negra de la papa son enfermedades ocasionadas por el hongo Rhizoctonia solani grupo de anastomosis tres (GA-3PT), el cual afecta raíces, tallos y tubérculos de papa y reduce el rendimiento de los cultivos. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la diversidad genética de R. solani GA-3PT presente en los departamentos colombianos de Antioquia, Boyacá y Cundinamarca. La restricción enzimática de la región ribosomal (RFLP, por sus siglas en inglés) ITS-5.8S permitió la diferenciación e identificación específica de los grupos de anastomosis GA-3PT y GA2-1 y confirmó que el GA-3PT es el principal agente causal y origen etiológico de la enfermedad en Colombia. Mediante amplificación aleatoria de marcadores microsatélites (RAMs), por sus siglas en inglés), se observaron dos agrupamientos dentro de R. solani GA-3PT; el GA-3PT (A) comparte un índice de similitud del 78 % entre sí, en comparación con el GA-3PT (B) que presenta una similitud del 79 % entre sus aislamientos. Los agrupamientos no están relacionados con su origen geográfico, sino con el grupo de anastomosis al que pertenecen. La diversidad genética de Nei [D] de 0,25 confirma una alta diversidad genética para el GA-3PT mediante análisis RAMs, relacionada con un alto potencial evolutivo al interior del grupo GA-3PT en Colombia. Finalmente, el hongo R. solani GA-3PT que se obtuvo en Cundinamarca tiene potencial adaptativo para emerger como patógeno de la papa criolla (Solanum phureja) en Colombia, posiblemente, debido a la semejanza de los patosistemas.  

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