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Publicado: 2021-01-10

Aspectos tecnológicos de la microencapsulación de compuestos bioactivos en alimentos mediante secado por aspersión

Universidad de Caldas
Universidad de Caldas
Universidad de Caldas
biocompuestos encapsulación estabilidad secado tecnología de alimentos

Resumen

El secado por aspersión es una técnica de amplio uso en la industria de alimentos para la obtención de productos en polvo a partir de la formación de gotas pequeñas dentro de una cámara de secado a temperatura elevada. Esta técnica de secado se ha aplicado a la formación de microcápsulas que albergan compuestos funcionales con el objetivo de suplementar un alimento mediante la adición de uno o varios ingredientes esenciales que pueden proporcionar beneficios para la salud humana. En esta revisión, se recopiló información sobre el proceso de microencapsulación de secado por aspersión: el principio y las condiciones de operación, los materiales pared utilizados, su influencia sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y funcionales de las microcápsulas obtenidas, los problemas de calidad en las microcápsulas, los aspectos de liberación de los compuestos bioactivos y los estudios relacionados con la microencapsulación de vitaminas, minerales, sustancias oleosas, antioxidantes y microorganismos probióticos. En total, se consultaron 78 estudios publicados entre los años 2010 y 2020 en bases de datos de alto impacto en la comunidad científica. Se observó que algunas combinaciones de compuestos bioactivos, con propiedades fisicoquímicas y funcionales definidas, dan origen a nuevos alimentos funcionales que mejoran en alto grado la salud de quienes los consumen con frecuencia. Los adelantos en el área de la microencapsulación mediante secado por aspersión son numerosos y coinciden con las nuevas tendencias de desarrollo e innovación en el ámbito alimentario.

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