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Revisión del impacto de concentraciones elevadas de CO2 sobre frutales en la era del cambio climático

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
dióxido de carbono enriquecimiento de dióxido de carbono fotosíntesis fuerza vertedero nitrógeno uso eficiente del agua fisiología de frutales relaciones fuente sumidero

Resumen

Las actividades antropogénicas han contribuido a que la concentración de CO2 atmosférico aumente constantemente con una predicción de 600 a 700 ppm para fines de este siglo, siendo una de las mayores causas del calentamiento global. Los huertos frutales y viñedos son importantes sistemas de producción sostenible que pueden minimizar las emisiones y secuestrar carbono de la atmósfera. Para esta revisión de literatura, se evaluó mediante la información obtenida de diferentes bases de datos. Generalmente, el CO2 elevado (e-CO2) genera efectos positivos sobre los frutales en procesos como el aumento de la fotosíntesis, el uso eficiente de agua, el crecimiento y la biomasa. Por lo anterior, en muchos casos, el rendimiento y la calidad de los frutos también incrementaron. Se estima que, con un e-CO2 de 600-750 ppm, la mayoría de las plantas C3 crecerán un 30 % más rápido. Con 1000 ppm las condiciones serán óptimas para la fotosíntesis de varias especies vegetales. Los árboles frutales que también crecen en Colombia como los cítricos, la vid, la fresa, la papaya y la pitaya, se beneficiarían de los efectos positivos mencionados anteriormente, en tanto que el e-CO2 aliviaría los efectos del estrés por sequía y anegamiento. Sin embargo, el mayor crecimiento de los frutales por el e-CO2 exige un mayor suministro de nutrientes y agua, por lo cual es muy importante la selección de genotipos que se benefician del e-CO2 y que presenten un alto uso eficiente de nitrógeno y agua. Así mismo, es deseable que dichas especies posean una alta fuerza vertedero para evitar la acumulación de carbohidratos en el cloroplasto. Esta revisión permite concluir que existe un “efecto fertilizante del CO2” sobre las especies frutales que aumenta con el avance del cambio climático. Sin embargo, existe poca investigación en comparación con muchos otros cultivos agrícolas. Por ello, a futuro se requieren estudios que midan los efectos directos del e-CO2 atmosférico y sus interacciones con variables ambientales, como la lluvia, la temperatura, la humedad del suelo y la disponibilidad de nutrientes.

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